By Dr Stuart Jeanne Bramhall
Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time by Carroll Quigley* (1966 Macmillan) is an exacting account of how the Bank of England, the Federal Reserve, the European central banks, and the giant investment banks that dominate them (e.g. Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan) came to control all western governments.
According to Quigley, banks have controlled western society – by manipulating the money supply – since the creation of the Bank of England and the fractional reserve lending system in 1694. Moreover, owing to the secrecy under which they operate, Quigley asserts that most elected officials are totally unaware of the immense control central and investment banks exert over the so-called democratic process.